In 1996, someone found some very old clothes in an old mine in Nevada, USA; they included a pair of dirty old jeans. Today, those jeans are very valuable, and they are now in the Levi Strauss Archival Collection, in San Francisco. The jeans, which are over 140 years old, are the oldest pair of Levi’s 501 jeans in the world.
They are almost the same as a modern pair of 501’s; there are just some small differences in the detail. For instance, today’s 501’s have two back pockets, the old pair just has one.


jeans    Jeans were the classic clothes of the American West.
In 1853, a young tailor from Germany, called Levi Strauss, began working in San Francisco; Levi sold thick canvas to miners; the miners used the canvas to make tents.
One day, a miner told Levi that he could not find trousers that were strong enough for work in the gold mines. Levi decided to make some trousers out of canvas.
Very soon, he had sold all the canvas trousers he had made! They were just what miners wanted.
However, the canvas was rather heavy andstiff. Levi therefore began to look for a different textile; soon he found a heavy textile from France; it was called serge de Nimes. Americans just called this de Nimes, and this name soon got reduced to denim.
Denim was a bit lighter than canvas, but it was very strong; it was ideal for miners.
However, original denim was almost white, and miners did not like the color! Their denim trousers got dirty as soon as they began working! Continue reading


Spring season is the most lively season of the year. People (especially kids) are fond of this time because of its beauty, slight cool and fresh weather. It is the queen of all seasons of the year and is considered to be the favorite season of poets. It comes after winter season and before summer season.

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Դերանքւն (pronoun)

Անձնական դերանուն – Personal pronoun

Նրանք են – I, you, he/she it , we, they.

Այս դերանունները, երբ ցույց ոն տալիս թե ում է պատկանում առարկան փոխվում և դառնում են my, your, his / her it’s , our, their ցուց է տալիս պատկանելիություն:

Հայցական հոլովում դերանունները դառնում են

me you him/ her it us them

My your his/her it’s our their

I you he/she it we they

He is dreaming.

It is green.

They are on the wall.

It is running.

We are watching TV.

He is riding his bike.

They are in the garden.

She is from Bristol.

She has got a brother.

Has she got a computer?

I am sitting on the sofa.

We are watching TV.

Are you from England.

He is going home.

You are playing football.

It is a wonderful day today.

They are speaking English.

Is she Kevin’s sister?

They are swimming in the pool.

Are you in the cinema?

Sally or Paula?

She’s four years old. She’s intelligent. She’s got dark brown hair and brown eyes. She’s got a small nose and a thumb on her hand.

She lives with her family. She hasn’t got a big family, she’s got two sisters. She likes people and she loves her sisters and her friends. When she’s happy, she jumps up and down and laughs. She loves chocolate and bananas too!

Is it Sally or Paula? Well, it’s both Sally and Paula. Paula’s a little girl, Sally’s a chimpanzee. How are they different? Chimpanzees live in forests in Africa people live in towns and cities. Why are they similar? Because they’ve got almost the same DNA. DNA is the chemical in our bodies that makes us people, or chimpanzees, or fish or dogs, etc.Ninety-eight percent of human DNA and chimpanzee DNA is the same. There is only 2% difference.

British families

1. The Siddiwui family live in Birmingham. Birmingham is a big city in the middle of the country. Mohammed and his mother Rani are from Bangladesh. Mohammed’s wife Maureen is British and she comes from Liverpool.

Mohammed and Maureen have a grocery shop. It sells fruit, vegetables and drinks. They live in the flat above the shop and Rani looks after their two children. Mohammed and Maureen both work in the shop. The shop’s open until 10 pm every day, so they work hard.

I’m happy to work hard for my wife and family, ‘ says Mohammed.


2. The Jackson family live in Chester. They rent a house. They want to buy their own house, so they save money when they can.

Daniel Jackson works in a factory in Manchester – it’s not a bad job but it’s a long way for him to go work. His wife, Jill, is a secretary in a school.

The Jackson’s have two teenage children. They are both at school, and when Jill finished work, she drives th their school and then takes them home.

Fill the correct form of the words in brackets

1. My house is bigger than yours.

2. This flower more beautiful than that one.

3. This is the most interesting book I have ever read.

4. Non-smokers are usually longer than smokers.

5. Witch is the most dangerous animal in the world?

6. A holiday by the sea is better than holiday in mountains. is strange it often a coke is more expensive than a beer.

8. Who is the richest woman on earth?

9. The weather this summer is even worse than last summer.

10. He was the cleverest thief of all.

Cold – colder – coldest

Good – better – best

Interesting- more interesting- most interesting

Beautiful – more beautiful- most beautiful

Old – older – oldest

Little – less – least

Important- more important- most important

Far – farther – farthest


ԲԱծականը ցույց է տալիս առարկայի որակը, թե ինչպիսին է այն: Ածականն ունի համեմատության աստիճաններ:

Degrees of comparison

Դրական – Positive  big, small as…as

He is as handsome as his father.

Համեմատական – Comparative

Միավանկ ածակաները իրենց վերջում ավելացնում են er վերջավորությունը,

big – bigger

Երկվանկ որը վերջանում է ow, y + er narrow – narrower, easy – easier

Բազմավանկ բաղաձայները

beautiful + more, more beautiful

Գերադրական – Superlative

Est, largest, smallest

Most beautiful


Love is the best feeling in the world. Love makes the world go round. It is the greatest mystery of all times. If you ask someone “What is love?”, he or she will hardly find enough words to express its meaning. Love can be different. There is love for parents, love for children, love for animals, love for friends, first love, love for husband or wife, boyfriend or girlfriend. When you love someone or something, your heart and soul become warmer and kinder. People, who carry love in their hearts, are always happy and in good mood.

Love helps to live and survive in the hardest moments of our lives. Almost all feelings in the world have some advantages or disadvantages. However, love has only advantages. It brings harmony and peace. The only type of love that can be painful is unrequited love. It’s when you love someone, but he or she doesn’t feel the same about you. It’s sad but it often happens. Moreover, I think that all people have experienced one-sided love at least once in their life. Again, I don’t think it’s a disadvantage of love. One-sided love teaches us something new, enriches with life experience and makes us stronger. Some wise men even say that one-sided love is better than none. Another disadvantage of love is its role in wars. Many ancient wars started because of love to a woman. Still, I think that love is the most important thing in everyone’s life. That’s why poets make verses, directors shoot films and composers write songs about it.

All people in the world want to love and to be loved. When love is mutual, it is the best thing that can ever happen to a man.

Types of questions

In English, there are four types of questions: general or yes/no questions, special questions using wh-words, choice questions, and disjunctive or tag/tail questions.

Let’s look at each type in more detail.


Common questions that can be answered with a simple “yes” or “no” are logically called yes/no questions.

As a rule, this kind of question relates to the whole sentence, and not to a separate element of it.

For example:

  •         Do you like this country? –
  •         Does Jane know about your new job? –
  •         Can I call my sister? –
  •         Is it cold outside? –
  •         Are they ready for the trip? –
  •         Are you hungry? –

To ask such general questions, the appropriate rising intonation should be used at the end of the sentence.

The answer can be a brief “yes” or “no.” Or, a longer answer can be given: “Yes, I do.” “No, I don’t like this country.” The response to a question depends on the verb used.

Try to remember this formula: answer the question the way it was asked.

If the question begins with a form of the verb “to be” – am, is, are – then answer “Yes, I am/he is/they are,” or “No, I am not/he isn’t/they aren’t.”

It is similar to auxiliary verbs (do/does, did, will, have/has):

  •         Did she clean the room? – Yes, she did/No, she didn’t.
  •         Have you done your homework? – Yes, I have/ No, I haven’t.
  •         Will you buy that dress? – Yes, I will/ No, I won’t.


A special question, as you can guess, uses a certain word at the beginning of the sentence. The questions words whowhatwherewhenwhyhowhow many, etc., are used to begin the question:

  •         Where is he from? –
  •         When did you come here? –
  •         How did you meet her? –
  •         How many eggs do we need for this cake? –
  •         Whose children are playing in the yard? –

Note that questions about a subject (who? what?) have their own special structure; they do not require an auxiliary verb, we replace the subject with the question word.

For example:

  •         We go to the cinema. – Who goes to the cinema?
  •         The glass is on the table. – What is on the table?
  •         Most girls here wear skirts. – Who wears skirts here?

You can see that after the question words who and what, the third-person singular form of the verb should be used.

We use special questions to get specific information. This implies that the answer will be more detailed.


Choice questions are questions that offer a choice of several options as an answer. They are made up of two parts, which are connected by the conjunction or.

Choice questions can be either general or specific. If the question does not centre on the subject of the sentence, a complete answer is needed.

For example:

  •         Does she like ice cream or sweets? – She likes ice cream.
  •         Where would you go, to the cinema or the theatre? – I would go to the cinema.
  •         Is he a teacher or a student? – He is a student.

However, when the question concerns the subject, the auxiliary verb comes before the second option. The answer is short:

  •         Does she make it or do you? – She does.
  •         Did they buy that house or did she? – They did.


  1. Ted’s advice wasn’t clever.
  2. They had to go to school on Saturday.
  3. He won’t be able to speak Italian in two months.
  4. They are not going to meet him.
  5. She mustn’t take these pills.
  6. She won’t have to write the exercise again.
  7. He couldn’t swim last summer.
  8. She has to wear a uniform.
  9. She will be able to make sandwiches tomorrow.